In Haskell, monad transformers are used to combine effects provided by multiple monads.
Boring example: Writer, Reader, State
For instance, if we want to have a read-only environment plus a write-only logging facility, we can start with the Reader monad and add a logging facility to it with the WriterT monad transformer:
type MyMonad w r a = WriterT w (Reader r) a
Or, we could start with the Writer monad and put the ReaderT transformer on top of it:
type MyMonad w r a = ReaderT r (Writer w) a
In the end, it doesn’t matter which way we choose, as both are isomorphic to
type MyMonad w r a = r -> (a, w)
If we want to have a state as well, we can plug in the StateT transformer anywhere in the stack, and again the order doesn’t matter. The resulting monad is now isomorphic to the standard RWS (Reader-Writer-State) monad.
So, we say about those transformers that they commute (recall that Reader is just the ReaderT transformer applied to the Identity monad).
More interesting example: Either + Writer
Not every two transformers commute, though.
Suppose we want to write log messages, plus to be able to abort the computation.
There are two quite different ways to compose these effects.
type MyMonad e w a = ErrorT e (Writer w) a
(Either e a, w),
and then there’s
type MyMonad e w a = WriterT w (Either e) a
Either r (a, w).
We can already see the difference from the types. In the first case,
w is there independently of the value of
Either. In the second case, if the computation failed, the
whole thing is
Left msg, and
we don’t get our log
Let’s try the following to confirm our expectations:
> runWriter $ runErrorT $ tell "foo" >> throwError "err" >> tell "bar" Left "err","foo") (> runErrorT $ runWriterT $ tell "foo" >> throwError "err" >> tell "bar" Left "err"
When reasoning about a stack of monad transformers, it’s useful to
keep in mind that a transformer knows nothing about its inner monad. It
has to work “inside” that monad. It has no ability to alter or cancel
the effects that happened before in that monad. (It can prevent those
effects from happening, though – see
In the first example above, which corresponds to
ErrorT e (Writer w),
the Error monad had to work inside the Writer monad. It simply had no
way to tell the writer monad to “forget” what had been told to it
In the second example, corresponding to
WriterT w (Either e) a,
the main monad is now
Either e. If
it decides to fail, it will return just the error, and nothing else.
The same logic answers the question why there’s no
an IO monad transformer. Imagine this:
do <- launchMissiles targetHit $ when targetHit "oops I did it again" throwError
throwError happens in the base monad, the whole
thing is just
Left "oops I did it again"
– nothing mentions any IO. But what about the missiles?
If this shallow explanation is not enough to make you comfortable with transformers, I’d advise to read (or even to write) the implementation of some standard transformers.
Even more interesting example: Parsec + State
The Parsec monad already allows us to have our own state, but let’s see how we can add one independently.
Again, we have two ways to layer ParsecT and StateT transformers on
top of Identity:
ParsecT s () (State u) a
StateT u (Parsec s ()) a.
Is there a difference?
Recall that Parsec is a backtracking monad. It can execute one branch, fail, and then execute another branch. Do we observe the state changes that happened in the aborted branch?
This will be our test code:
1 >> char 'b') <|> char 'a') >> get((put
We’ll try to run it with the input
and initial state
Parsec executes the left branch of
fails, and proceeds with the right branch. If the state is “global”,
then the final result will be
1. If the
state is subject to backtracking, then we’ll see
ParsecT s () (State u) a
case, the base monad is State. ParsecT works inside that monad and
cannot revert the effects that happened there. (It may seem that it
could remember the state of a branch using
get and then
restore it using
put; but a monad transformer has to be
polymorphic in the underlying monad and thus cannot rely on existence of
And indeed, the code
import Text.Parsec import Control.Monad.State = print $ flip evalState 0 $ runParserT p () "-" "a" main where p = ((put 1 >> char 'b') <|> char 'a') >> get
Let’s now try the second option: layering StateT on top of Parsec. We
cannot use the code above as is, because types do not match: e.g.
Parsec s () Char,
but we need
StateT u (Parsec s ()) Char.
Such an upgrade is done by the
Sometimes, however, we need to “downgrade” computations from
StateT u (Parsec s ()) a
Parsec s () a.
For example, to implement a
operator of type
(<|>) :: StateT u (Parsec s ()) a -> StateT u (Parsec s ()) a -> StateT u (Parsec s ()) a
we need first to downgrade the arguments to plain Parsec computation,
invoke Parsec’s own
then upgrade the result back to StateT.
import Text.Parsec as P import Control.Monad.State = print $ runParser (evalStateT p 0) () "-" "a" main where = ((put 1 >> char 'b') <|> char 'a') >> get p = lift . P.char char <|> b = StateT $ \s -> a P.<|> runStateT b s runStateT a s
Notice how we explicitly run both branches of
the same state. It’s no surprise now that the state will be
“backtracked” and the result will be
By the way, this is the same result as would be achieved using Parsec’s