October 25, 2012
import Prelude hiding (readList) import Control.Applicative import Control.Monad import Control.Monad.Trans import Control.Monad.Trans.Maybe import Data.Maybe
Suppose we need to ask the user to enter a list of lines, terminated by an empty line. The usual way to do it is through recursion:
readList :: IO [String] readList = do l <- getLine if null l then return  else (l :) <$> readList
This is fine, but can we do better?
A good style in Haskell is to replace explicit recursion with high-level recursion combinators where it is possible and doesn’t harm readability.
What is the pattern here? Those who are familiar with parser combinator libraries will easily recognize the
many combinator. It tries to recognize as many items as possible and returns the list of recognized items (in this case successful recognition means that we got a non-empty line).
A generalization of the
many combinator works for any applicative functor which is an instance of the
many :: Alternative f => f a -> f [a]
IO functor is not an instance of
Alternative, but we can fix it by layering a
MaybeT transformer on top of it.
MaybeT will be our means to distinguish failure from success.
readList :: IO [String] readList = fmap (fromMaybe ) $ runMaybeT $ many $ do l <- lift getLine guard $ not $ null l return l
do-block is the code which reads one line, and, depending on whether that line is null, returns it or signals about the failure.
Some more details about what’s going on there.
MaybeT IO Stringby assuming that it always succeeds (in
guardis a function from the
MonadZeroclass that checks the condition and, if it does not hold, declares failure. It is somewhat similar to an
assertfunction, except it is used for control flow rather than debugging purposes.
guarddid not abort the computation, we get to the last line that simply returns the line we’ve just read.
(If you want to learn more about how monad transformers work, please refer to Composing monadic effects.)
The outer code does boring stuff:
MaybeT IO String to
IO (Maybe String) (which is the same thing but
Nothing as the empty list.
It is interesting that only the first line of
readList definition gives us a hint that
MaybeT works here. The rest of the code just uses overloaded functions
Was the rewrite worth it? It is debatable, since a function did get a bit more complicated. But in my opinion, the answer is yes — we got rid of explicit recursion, and the idea of the function became more clear.